# 4.12. Permutation (advanced)¶

This example is taken from Python Reference Manual. It gives a beautiful illustration of the logic behind Pythonic splices:

```
def perm(l):
"""Compute the list of all permutations of l"""
if len(l) <= 1:
return [l]
r = []
for i in range(len(l)):
# s = l with the ith element skipped.
s = l[:i] + l[i+1:]
p = perm(s)
for x in p:
# l[i:1+1]: singleton list containing i-th element
r.append(l[i:i+1] + x)
return r
```

## 4.12.1. Combinations¶

To implement **choose** as in “n choose K” try the following
(from stackoverflow):

```
from operator import mul # or mul=lambda x,y:x*y
from fractions import Fraction
def nCk(n,k):
return int( reduce(mul, (Fraction(n-i, i+1) for i in range(k)), 1) )
for n in range(17):
print ' '.join('%5d'%nCk(n,k) for k in range(n+1)).center(100)
```

Note the `Fraction`

module is a Python implementation of fractions,
which implements fraction addition and multiplication, treating
fractions as pairs of rationals, so:

```
Fraction(3.4,1.7)
```

is an error but the intended computation can be expressed in integer based ratios as:

```
Fraction(Fraction(34,10),Fraction(17,10))
```

and is immediately simplified to:

```
Fraction(2, 1)
```

Similarly,:

```
Fraction(1, 3) + Fraction(1, 2)
```

becomes:

```
Fraction(5, 6)
```

So the definition of `nCk`

really translates the
standard mathematical formula into Python.

Note a more efficient implementation is available from scipy.