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Emacs Manual

Computational Linguistics


Cryptography FAQ

FAQs prepared by


FAQs prepared by research group at RSA Labs, the company founded by the inventors of RSA.


Cypherpunks FAQ and more.

Key Size

How big should my key be?



References prepared by


Bruce Schneier's list, focused on online resources

Wikipedia Cryptography

Descriptions of many cryptography algorithms.

Crypto Anarchist Manifesto

Tim C. May. Not just a manifesto but a nice description of the problem.

Crypto Anarchy and Virtual Communities

Tim C. May. A longer piece, expanding on many of the basic ideas of the manifesto and introducing some new ones about communities in cyberspace.

Cryptography Handbook

Alfred J. Menezes, Paul C. van Oorschoot, Scott A. Vanstone. A textbook, with chapters made available online, which requires a bit of general mathematical background.

EES and the Clipper Chip

Daniel Shipengrover. A nice terse description of the ethical issues raised with the introduction of the EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard), Skipjack (the algorithm that embodies it), and the Clipper Chip (the chip that implements the algorithm). Lots of good further reading links at the bottom of the page.

People and Orgs

EFF Electronic Frontier Foundation. Digital Freedom and Privacy Watchdog
PGP MIT's Pretty Good Privacy distribution site
Philip Zimmerman This is the guy who was the target of a 3-year criminal investigation because he created and distributed PGP
Bruce Schneier

Author of popular Applied Cryptography
W3C WC3 (World Wide Web Consortium). This scarey sounding organization was founded to develop protocols that ensure interoperability for the world wide web. This is the security page.
Francis Litterio Crypto page for the WWW Virtual Library
Adam Back Export a cryptosystem sig page
Paul (Paj) Johnston Includes some basic hashing and code-cracking software.
H.X.Mel One of the authors of our textbook. Excellent list of cryptography resources
Vince Cate Cypherpunk/Cryptorebel Page
QRlab Online encryption info guide. Useful list of resources


sci.crypt Technical cryptography news group Computer security news group
alt.privacy.clipper Clipper, also general public policy privacy issues like key escrow
alt.society.civil-liberty Discussion of general civil liberties issues
alt.society.privacy Discussion of general privacy issues
comp.compression compression, encoding
Cryptogram Schneier's Newsletter

CryptoBytes RSA Labs Newsletter
P. Kocher newsy website (check out that URL!)

Concepts and Code

Group Theory and Cryptography General intro to the math behind RSA
Onlineit degree Webpage A very useful set of cryptography links.
Kerckhoff's Principle

A cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is known. In particular, if the method of encryption is known.

Cryptography Demo Point and click application demonstrating various cryptography-based apps: RSA, MD5, simple ciphers.
A. Kuchling's Cryptography toolkit A full suite of cryptography tools in usable form
One-time pad

Concept for the only perfect cryptosystem.

One-time pad Code by Andrew Kuchling (in Python)

Password cracker Alec Muffet's incredibly simple program. Often used by system administrators to find bad passwords. Requires a Linux/Unix password file.

A. P. Lawrence's readable get-started doc for gpg

GPG Manual

More than you need to know but clear.

Digital ID Manual

Clear explanation of CAs (certificate authorities), PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) and digital certificates (also called Digital IDs), from the point of view of a commercial vendor of same.

RSA and factoring


A terse comprehensible description of the RSA protocol

RSA-129 factored

A very large RSA number was factored in 5000 mips years by distributed computing (600 volunteers in 20 countries)

Largest Primes Chris Caldwell's University of Tennessee primes page, which discuess the largest known primes, as well listing priumes of various types.



Wikipedia article on the now-obsolete DES system


A terse comprehensible description of the RSA protocol

Public Key Servers

These may or may not have web pages, access with a public key encryption program like pgp.

The MIT public key server Swedish linux source runs key server Encryption software vendor Veridis runs a key server

Certificate Authorities

Verisign Digital ID

Verisign/RSA, a leader in security and verification services for business clients, serves as root for a large web of commercial certificates. This Digital ID (used by, say, a software consultant) costs $19.95.
Digital Signature Trust

Commercial Certificate Authority; Personal Digital certificate (synonym for Digital ID) costs $24.

Open Source/Free Software

Gnu Manifesto

Richard Stallman's fiery call to arms for the free software movement. The opening shot in the free software revolution? This is a point of some controversy.

Steven Levy's famous book about hackers, focusing on figures in the free software movement.
Free as in Freedom

Sam Williams's biography of Richard Stallman, legendary hacker and free-software advocate. For a little balance, read this somewhat less than dazzled review by Eric Raymond.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar

Eric S. Raymond, Open Souce advocate, libertarian, and hacker, wrote this famous essay about the open source phenomenon.
The Luxury of Ignorance: An Open Source Horror Story

This is a frank informative piece by Eric Raymond about usability issues and open-source software.

Digital Cash

Digital Cash

Digging those Digicash blues. Summary story on on where digicash is now.

Digicash Failure

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy filing for Digicash (98). story with links to stories of other successes and failures in the electronics payments business. story.

David Chaum

Chaum is holder of the orginal digital cash patents that provided the intellectual property Digicash was founded on. After Digicash's collapse, a company called Ecash Technologies acquired the patents, some of which have already expired.

Pay Pal

Definitely not digital cash but the closest thing. Does not provide anonymity, does not acheive the low transaction costs promised by digital cash, and does not provide immediate transactions.

Anonymous email

Global Liberty Campaign anonymous remailer

Riot Anonymous remailer

Place and Time

Tu 11:00-12:00 TH 11:00-12:30

Contact Info

Mailing address:
Department of Linguistics and Oriental Languages
San Diego State University
5500 Campanile Drive
San Diego, CA 92182-7727
Telephone: (619) 594-0252

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