A. End of chapter 11. Exercises 11.1, 11.2.
For exercises 11.1 and 11.2 you should start with the ATIS Grammar, which is given in slightly fuller form in Chapter 12, in Figure 12.1.
You will need to make some changes to the grammar in Fig. 12.1 to handle everything in 11.1 and 11.2, especially 11.2:
B. Part 1. Next consider the next two sentences:
In (a), the corresponding words the capital from Boston is not an NP. Think about this for a moment. You could not make the capital from Boston the subject of a sentence. The reason that from Boston is there is that it's telling us where the flight is from (not where Boston is from). We capture this semantic fact by drawing a syntactic tree in which the noun flight is modified by two PPs ( to the capital and from Boston) which spell out the itinerary of the flight. In that tree the capital from Boston is not an NP. In fact it's not even a phrase. The difference between the (a) and (b) sentences is called a structural difference. See if you can draw the right trees to capture this structural. There are various choices you can make, but see if you can draw trees that make both a flight to the capital from Boston and a steak with a side of fries NPs. You will certainly have to add words to the grammar. You may have to add other kinds of rules to the grammar. Do you?
Draw the correct trees representing the structural difference by hand. Report any changes you had to make to the grammmar to get the right trees.
The following phrases all have the same parts of speech as
steak with side of fries and flight from capital